Structural Biochemistry/Organic Chemistry/Lipids - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides are stored in your Your liver is especially capable of synthesizing fatty acids, triglycerides and Diabetologia: Revisiting the Connection Between Intramyocellular Lipids and. The main difference between lipids and fats is that lipids are a broad . Fats refer to an oily substance that occurs in the body under the skin or. Lipids that are important to our discussion include fats and oils (triglycerides or Cholesterol frequently exists in foods and body tissues esterified to one fatty acid . Nevertheless, appreciation of the relationship of diet to serum cholesterol.
Biochemistry of Lipids: Fatty Acids, Omega Fats, Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Eicosanoids
Stored lipids can be derived from the lipids in your diet or from lipids that your body synthesizes. Adipocytes have an almost unlimited capacity to store lipids in cell organelles called lipid droplets, which can grow to a very large size.
Although adipose tissue has essential functions in your body, excessive lipid storage can compromise cell function.
Dietary Lipids With the assistance of bile acids in your small intestine, dietary lipids are broken down by enzymes to monoglycerides, fatty acids and cholesterol, which are then absorbed. Triglycerides and cholesteryl esters are reformed in your intestinal cells and packaged with protein, cholesterol and phospholipid as lipoproteins called chylomicrons, which are secreted into the lymph and empty into your blood through the thoracic duct.
The triglycerides of chylomicrons are taken up by tissues such as your heart, muscle and adipose, and the chylomicron remnants are cleared primarily by your liver. In your tissue cells, the products of dietary lipid digestion and absorption are stored in lipid droplets. Synthesized Lipids Your liver is especially capable of synthesizing fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol from the protein and carbohydrate in your diet.
Lipid - Wikipedia
Excess dietary protein is not appreciably stored in your body. Amino acids are broken down to carbon units that enter a metabolic pathway called the citric acid cycle, which provides precursors that are incorporated into lipids. Likewise, glucose derived from dietary carbohydrate is broken down in a pathway called glycolysis, and the product of glycolysis can enter the citric acid cycle and then be incorporated into lipids.
Fatty acids are long-chain hydrocarbon molecules containing a carboxylic acid moiety at one end. The numbering of carbons in fatty acids begins with the carbon of the carboxylate group. At physiological pH, the carboxyl group is readily ionized, rendering a negative charge onto fatty acids in bodily fluids.
Fatty acids that contain no carbon-carbon double bonds are termed saturated fatty acids; those that contain double bonds are unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids with multiple sites of unsaturation are termed polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs. The numeric designations used for fatty acids come from the number of carbon atoms, followed by the number of sites of unsaturation e.
Palmitic Acid The melting point of fatty acids increases as the number of carbon atoms increases.
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In addition, the introduction of sites of unsaturation results in lower melting points when comparing a saturated and an unsaturated fatty acid of the same number of carbon atoms. Saturated fatty acids of less than eight carbon atoms are liquid at physiological temperature, whereas those containing more than ten are solid.
As a general rule, oils from vegetables contain many more unsaturated fatty acids and are therefore, liquids at room temperature.
In contrast, animal oils contain more saturated fatty acids.
The steric geometry of unsaturated fatty acids can also vary such that the acyl groups or hydrogen atoms can be oriented on the same side or on opposite sides of the double bond.