Let the tribes and individuals of tribes understand that if they are willing they may be time, till aE meet at the citadel site, after which, construct the connecting lines. All, or at least the first portion, of theso roads must be carried out with a force. A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or For a place outside a port a ship can lie at anchor, see Roadstead. Historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal . At its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from. “Love, like a river, will cut a new path whenever it meets an obstacle. “I understand that everything is connected, that all roads meet, and that.
These measurements include road curvaturecross slopeasperityroughnessrutting and texture. Software algorithms use this data to recommend maintenance or new construction. Maintenance treatments for asphalt concrete generally include thin asphalt overlays, crack sealing, surface rejuvenating, fog sealingfo, micro milling or diamond grinding and surface treatments.
Thin surfacing preserves, protects and improves the functional condition of the road while reducing the need for routing maintenance, leading to extended service life without increasing structural capacity. This can extend the life of the concrete pavement for 15 years. Slab stabilization[ edit ] Distress and serviceability loss on concrete roads can be caused by loss of support due to voids beneath the concrete pavement slabs.
The voids usually occur near cracks or joints due to surface water infiltration. The most common causes of voids are pumping, consolidation, subgrade failure and bridge approach failure. Slab stabilization is a non-destructive method of solving this problem and is usually employed with other Concrete Pavement Restoration CPR methods including patching and diamond grinding.
The technique restores support to concrete slabs by filing small voids that develop underneath the concrete slab at joints, cracks or the pavement edge. The process consists of pumping a cementitous grout or polyurethane mixture through holes drilled through the slab. The grout also displaces free water and helps keep water from saturating and weakening support under the joints and slab edge after stabilization is complete. The three steps for this method after finding the voids are locating and drilling holes, grout injection and post-testing the stabilized slabs.
Slab stabilization does not correct depressions, increase the design structural capacity, stop erosion or eliminate faulting. It does, however, restore the slab support, therefore, decreasing deflections under the load. Stabilization should only be performed at joints and cracks where loss of support exists.
Visual inspection is the simplest manner to find voids. Signs that repair is needed are transverse joint faulting, corner breaks and shoulder drop off and lines at or near joints and cracks. Deflection testing is another common procedure utilized to locate voids. It is recommended to do this testing at night as during cooler temperatures, joints open, aggregate interlock diminishes and load deflections are at their highest. Testing[ edit ] Ground penetrating radar pulses electromagnetic waves into the pavement and measures and graphically displays the reflected signal.
This can reveal voids and other defects. It consists of drilling a 25 to 50 millimeter hole through the pavement into the sub-base with a dry-bit roto-hammer. Next, a two-part epoxy is poured into the hole — dyed for visual clarity. Once the epoxy hardens, technicians drill through the hole.
If a void is present, the epoxy will stick to the core and provide physical evidence.
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Common stabilization materials include pozzolan -cement grout and polyurethane. The requirements for slab stabilization are strength and the ability to flow into or expand to fill small voids.
Colloidal mixing equipment is necessary to use the pozzolan-cement grouts. The contractor must place the grout using a positive-displacement injection pump or a non-pulsing progressive cavity pump.
A drill is also necessary but it must produce a clean hole with no surface spalling or breakouts. The injection devices must include a grout packer capable of sealing the hole.
The injection device must also have a return hose or a fast-control reverse switch, in case workers detect slab movement on the uplift gauge. The uplift beam helps to monitor the slab deflection and has to have sensitive dial gauges. Successful resealing consists of old sealant removal, shaping and cleaning the reservoir, installing the backer rod and installing the sealant.
Sawing, manual removal, plowing and cutting are methods used to remove the old sealant. Saws are used to shape the reservoir.
When cleaning the reservoir, no dust, dirt or traces of old sealant should remain. Thus, it is recommended to water wash, sand-blast and then air blow to remove any sand, dirt or dust. The backer rod installation requires a double-wheeled, steel roller to insert the rod to the desired depth.
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After inserting the backer rod, the sealant is placed into the joint. Using the gromae they then laid out a grid on the plan of the road. The libratores then began their work using ploughs and, sometimes with the help of legionarieswith spades excavated the road bed down to bed rock or at least to the firmest ground they could find. The excavation was called the fossa, the Latin word for ditch. The depth varied according to terrain. The general appearance of such a metalled road and footway is shown in an existing street of Pompeii.
Native earth, leveled and, if necessary, rammed tight. Dorsum or agger viae: The upper surface was designed to cast off rain or water like the shell of a tortoise.
The lower surfaces of the separate stones, here shown as flat, were sometimes cut to a point or edge in order to grasp the nucleus, or next layer, more firmly.
Crepido, margo or semita: The method varied according to geographic locality, materials available and terrain, but the plan, or ideal at which the engineer aimed was always the same. The roadbed was layered. The road was constructed by filling the ditch. This was done by layering rock over other stones. Into the ditch was dumped large amounts of rubble, gravel and stone, whatever fill was available.
Sometimes a layer of sand was put down, if it could be found. When it came to within 1 yd 1 m or so of the surface it was covered with gravel and tamped down, a process called pavire, or pavimentare. The flat surface was then the pavimentum. It could be used as the road, or additional layers could be constructed. A statumen or "foundation" of flat stones set in cement might support the additional layers.
The final steps utilized lime-based concretewhich the Romans had discovered. First a small layer of coarse concrete, the rudus, then a little layer of fine concrete, the nucleus, went onto the pavement or statumen. Into or onto the nucleus went a course of polygonal or square paving stones, called the summa crusta. The crusta was crowned for drainage. An example is found in an early basalt road by the Temple of Saturn on the Clivus Capitolinus.
It had travertine paving, polygonal basalt blocks, concrete bedding substituted for the graveland a rain-water gutter. Outcroppings of stone, ravines, or hilly or mountainous terrain called for cuttings and tunnels. An example of this is found on the Roman road from Cazanes near the Iron Gates. The road functioned as a towpath, making the Danube navigable. Tabula Traiana memorial plaque in Serbia is all that remains of the now-submerged road.
Bridges and causeways[ edit ] See also: List of Roman bridges Roman bridgesbuilt by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built.
River crossings were achieved by bridges, or pontes. Single slabs went over rills. A bridge could be of wood, stone, or both.
Wooden bridges were constructed on pilings sunk into the river, or on stone piers. Larger or more permanent bridges required arches. These larger bridges were built with stone and had the arch as its basic structure see arch bridge. Most also used concrete, which the Romans were the first to use for bridges. Roman bridges were so well constructed that a number remain in use today. Causeways were built over marshy ground. The road was first marked out with pilings.
Between them were sunk large quantities of stone so as to raise the causeway to more than 5 feet 1. In the provinces, the Romans often did not bother with a stone causeway, but used log roads pontes longi. Military and citizen utilization[ edit ] The public road system of the Romans was thoroughly military in its aims and spirit.
A legion on the march brought its own baggage train impedimenta and constructed its own camp castra every evening at the side of the road. Milestones and markers[ edit ] Main article: The modern word "mile" derives from the Latin milia passuum, "one thousand paces ", which amounted to 4, feet 1, metres.
A milestone, or miliarium, was a circular column on a solid rectangular base, set for more than 2 feet 0. At the base was inscribed the number of the mile relative to the road it was on. In a panel at eye-height was the distance to the Roman Forum and various other information about the officials who made or repaired the road and when.
These miliaria are valuable historical documents now. Examples of Roman Milestones Rome, Campidoglio: All roads were considered to begin from this gilded bronze monument. On it were listed all the major cities in the empire and distances to them. Constantine called it the umbilicus Romae "navel of Rome"and built a similar—although more complex—monument in Constantinoplethe Milion.
Milestones permitted distances and locations to be known and recorded exactly. It was not long before historians began to refer to the milestone at which an event occurred. Itinerary maps and charts[ edit ] Tabula Peutingeriana Southern Italy centered. Combined topographical and road-maps may have existed as specialty items in some Roman libraries, but they were expensive, hard to copy and not in general use.
Travelers wishing to plan a journey could consult an itinerariumwhich in its most basic form was a simple list of cities and towns along a given road, and the distances between them. From this master list, parts could be copied and sold on the streets. The most thorough used different symbols for cities, way stations, water courses, and so on. The Roman government from time to time would produce a master road-itinerary.
Three Greek geographers, ZenodoxusTheodotus and Polyclituswere hired to survey the system and compile a master itinerary; the task required over 25 years and the resulting stone-engraved master itinerary was set up near the Pantheon. Travelers and itinerary sellers could make copies from it. Vehicles and transportation[ edit ] Roman carriage reconstruction Outside the cities, Romans were avid riders and rode on or drove quite a number of vehicle types, some of which are mentioned here.
Carts driven by oxen were used. For purposes of description, Roman vehicles can be divided into the car, the coach, and the cart. Cars were used to transport one or two individuals, coaches were used to transport parties, and carts to transport cargo. Of the cars, the most popular was the carrus, a standard chariot form descending to the Romans from a greater antiquity.
The top was open, the front closed. One survives in the Vatican.
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It carried a driver and a passenger. A carrus with two horses was a biga ; three horses, a triga ; and four horses a quadriga. The tyres were of iron. When not in use, its wheels were removed for easier storage. A more luxurious version, the carpentumtransported women and officials. It had an arched overhead covering of cloth and was drawn by mules.
A lighter version, the cisiumequivalent to a gigwas open above and in front and had a seat. Drawn by one or two mules or horses, it was used for cab work, the cab drivers being called cisiani. The builder was a cisarius. Of the coaches, the mainstay was the raeda or reda, which had four wheels. The high sides formed a sort of box in which seats were placed, with a notch on each side for entry. It carried several people with baggage up to the legal limit of Roman librae poundsmodern equivalent kilograms pounds.
It was drawn by teams of oxen, horses or mules. A cloth top could be put on for weather, in which case it resembled a covered wagon. The raeda was probably the main vehicle for travel on the roads.
Raedae meritoriae were hired coaches. The fiscalis raeda was a government coach. The driver and the builder were both referred to as a raedarius. Of the carts, the main one was the plaustrum or plostrum. This was simply a platform of boards attached to wheels and a cross-tree.
The wheels, or tympana, were solid and were several centimetres inches thick. The sides could be built up with boards or rails. A large wicker basket was sometimes placed on it. A two-wheel version existed along with the normal four-wheel type called the plaustrum maius. The military used a standard wagon. Their transportation service was the cursus clabularisafter the standard wagon, called a carrus clabulariusclabularisclavularisor clabulare. It transported the impedimenta baggage of a military column.
Way stations and traveler inns[ edit ] See also: Mansio Non-military officials and people on official business had no legion at their service and the government maintained way stations, or mansiones "staying places"for their use. Passports were required for identification. There the official traveller found a complete villa dedicated to his use.
Often a permanent military camp or a town grew up around the mansio. For non-official travelers in need of refreshment, a private system of "inns" or cauponae were placed near the mansiones. They performed the same functions but were somewhat disreputable, as they were frequented by thieves and prostitutes. Graffiti decorate the walls of the few whose ruins have been found. Genteel travelers needed something better than cauponae.
In the early days of the viae, when little unofficial provision existed, houses placed near the road were required by law to offer hospitality on demand. Frequented houses no doubt became the first tabernae, which were hostels, rather than the "taverns" we know today. As Rome grew, so did its tabernae, becoming more luxurious and acquiring good or bad reputations as the case may be.
It had a large storage room containing barrels of wine, cheese and ham. Many cities of today grew up around a taberna complex, such as Rheinzabern in the Rhineland, and Saverne in Alsace. A third system of way stations serviced vehicles and animals: In these complexes, the driver could purchase the services of wheelwrights, cartwrights, and equarii medici, or veterinarians.
Post offices and services[ edit ] Two postal services were available under the empire, one public and one private. The Cursus publicusfounded by Augustuscarried the mail of officials by relay throughout the Roman road system. The vehicle for carrying mail was a cisium with a box, but for special delivery, a horse and rider was faster. The postman wore a characteristic leather hat, the petanus.