ADF - Drug Facts - LSD
LSD is a derivative of ergot, a fungus that affects rye grain. The summer of , however, was dry, which could explain the abrupt end of the “bewitchments . Ergot or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps. The most prominent . Ergot does not contain lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) but instead contains lysergic acid as well as its precursor, ergotamine. In AD, Adam Lonicer, of Frankfort, describes the appearance of ergot in fields of rye grass and . Severe poisoning outbreaks as a result of ergot fungi are called ergotism. . Botanical drawing from early description of rye showing ergots. LSD was first synthesized by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in , while searching for.
The neurotropic activities of the ergot alkaloids may also cause hallucinations and attendant irrational behaviour, convulsions, and even death. Since the Middle Ages, controlled doses of ergot were used to induce abortions and to stop maternal bleeding after childbirth. As well, he shares that the adrenergic blockage by ergopeptines e.
Reduced prolactin due to ergot alkaloid activity on dopamine receptors in the pituitary is also common in livestock.
Reduced serum prolactin is associated with various reproductive problems in cattle, and especially in horses, including agalactia and poor conception, and late-term losses of foals and sometimes mares due to dystocia and thickened placentas. The causative agents of most ergot poisonings are the ergot alkaloid class of fungal metabolites, though some ergot fungi produce distantly related indole-diterpene alkaloids that are tremorgenic.
Lysergic acid is a precursor for the synthesis of LSD. Their realized and hypothesized medicinal uses have encouraged intensive research since the s culminating on the one hand in development of drugs both legal e. The first mention of a plague of gangrenous ergotism in Europe comes from Germany in AD, following this France, Germany and Scandinavia experienced similar outbreaks.
Bennett A diary entry from the time describes that as soon as people ate the poisoned bread they became dizzy, with such strong contractions of the nerves that those who did not die from the first day, find their hands and feet falling from them, as from frostbite.
Anthony was a 3rd century Egyptian ascetic who lived by the Red Sea and was known for long fasting in which he confronted terrible visions and temptations sent from the Devil.
Anthony asking that he dedicate his life to healing the sick and injured.
Anthony was a popular subject for art in the middle ages and his symbol is a large blue T sewn onto the shoulder of the monks of the order which symbolizes the crutch used by the ill and injured.
Anthony grew quickly and hospitals spread through France, Germany, and Scandinavia and gained wealth and power as grateful patrons bestowed money and charitable goods to the hospitals.
Anthony's hospitalers became popular as well as the donation of limbs lost to ergotism which were displayed near shrines to the Saint.
Clues and Evidence
Patients with the convulsive form of ergotism, or ergotismus convulsivus were welcomed for only nine days before they were asked to leave. The convulsive form of ergotism was seen as less detrimental though the sufferers often experienced irreversible effects, they most often returned to their families and resumed their livelihoods.
Anthony was the exclusion of rye bread and other ergot containing edibles which halted the progression of ergotism. Anthony began to decline after physicians discovered the genesis of ergotism and recommended methods for removing the sclerotium from the rye crops.
In AD, the cloisters of St.
Anthony were incorporated into the Order of the Knight Hospitaller Malteselosing much of their medical histories in the process and losing the ergotism cures and recipes due to lack of use and lack of preservation. Caporael posited in that the hysterical symptoms of young women that had spurred the Salem witch trials had been the result of consuming ergot-tainted rye.
Spanos and Jack Gottlieb, after a review of the historical and medical evidence, later disputed her conclusions.
Were the American colonists drugged during the Salem witchcraft trial?
Parmentier wrote in his Journal de Physique of AD that ergot was frequently used by midwives as "a childbed remedy". This was ergot, a powerful natural drug that stimulates uterine muscles when given orally.
LSD was used experimentally in medicine as a psychotomimetic agent to induce mental states that were believed to resemble those of actual psychotic diseases primarily the schizophrenias. After administration, LSD can be absorbed readily from any mucosal surface—even the ear —and acts within 30 to 60 minutes.
Its effects usually last for 8 to 10 hours, and occasionally some effects persist for several days.
- HISTORY OF ERGOT
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Two serious side effects are the prolongation and transient reappearance of the psychotic reaction. Since LSD is not an approved drug, its therapeutic applications are regarded as experimental.
In the s LSD was proposed for use in the treatment of neurosesespecially for patients who were recalcitrant to more conventional psychotherapeutic procedures. LSD also was tried as a treatment for alcoholism and to reduce the suffering of terminally ill cancer patients. It was studied as an adjunct in the treatment of narcotic addiction, of children with autismand of the so-called psychopathic personality. At harvest, a fraction of sclerotia is harvested along with the grain and another fraction falls on the ground.
Sclerotia lie dormant until they are exposed to favorable weather conditions. Sclerotia germinate in the spring, just prior to flowering in the cereals and grasses, and give rise to a stroma stromata pluralformed in mushroom-like fashion on stipes with spherical capitula.
It is within these stromata that sexual reproduction occurs Figure 3.
Epidemiology Claviceps purpurea is common in temperate climates in which the cold period required for sclerotial germination is met. In warmer climates, such as the southeastern U. Rainfall or high soil moisture is required for stroma formation and ascospore production. In cereal grains and many of the grasses, resistance to infection develops after fertilization. Thus, conditions that delay or interfere with pollination, such as cool, wet weather, can increase the period of susceptibility.
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Conidia are an important means of secondary spread. Any transfer of honeydew from infected to healthy flowers can lead to infection. Secondary spread can occur through any means that moves conidia to healthy flowers, including rain splash, insects, head-to-head contact, and moving equipment. Disease Management Prevention is the best management strategy, but once ergot is observed in the field, there is not much a farmer can do to control the disease.
Cultural Practices Cleaning seed: Even though this is labor intensive and expensive, most ergots can be removed from grain by gravity-based cleaning equipment or flotation in brine e. There are no effective seed treatments against ergot, so only ergot-free seed should be planted. Use of certified seed can greatly reduce the risk of planting ergot infected seed. Only seed with a good germination percentage should be used.
Seed should be sown at a consistent depth, following a balanced fertilizer program and other recommended agronomic practices. Non-uniform stands within a region can result in a prolonged flowering period, which in turn increases the spread of the disease within the field or from one field to another. Late tillers and side shoots flowering outside the pollination period of main crop are more affected by ergot than the main shoots, especially when the crop stand is thin due to poor growing conditions.
Ergot of Rye: History
This is because they do not receive enough pollen and they still produce honeydew even after the main crop is mature, thus contributing considerably to the secondary spread.
The best crop husbandry practices against ergot are those that ensure a well-developed, well-nourished crop stand. Thus, adequate seed density and fertilization are very important.