The Northern Ireland Conflict – An Overview | The Irish Story
Feb 9, The Northern Ireland conflict was a thirty year bout of political violence, . The rioting began over a loyal order march in Derry, after which rioting between police The British Army's relationship with the nationalist population. The conflict between England and Ireland stems back to the Norman The IRA declared a Ceasefire in , Protestant paramilitary groups did likewise, and the British started to After the war there were the 'troubles' in Northern Ireland. Find out more about the Northern Ireland Conflict on blogmaths.info Despite some intermingling of the English and Irish population, the two were never Consequently, a reform movement of 'patriots' emerged, that began to lobby for.
Though not the principle focus of their campaign, republicans also killed significant numbers of Protestant civilians.
The IRA called a ceasefire infollowed shortly afterwards by the loyalist groups, leading to multi-party talks about the future of Northern Ireland. The conflict was formally ended with the Belfast or Good Friday Agreement of Definition British troops in Belfast, This name had the advantage that it did not attach blame to any of the participants and thus could be used neutrally. Nevertheless its impact on society in Northern Ireland — an enclave with a population of about 1.
Northern Ireland comprised six north eastern counties of Ireland in the province of Ulster. It left out three Ulster counties with large Catholic and nationalist majorities Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan but included two counties, Fermanagh and Tyrone with slight nationalist majorities.
Ina boundary commission that had been expected to cede large parts of Northern Ireland to the Irish Free State proposed no major changes. Even its limited modifications were never implemented and the border stayed as it was. From untilNorthern Ireland functioned as a self-governing region of the United Kingdom.
The Unionist Party formed the government, located at Stormont, outside Belfast, for all of these years. Its power was buttressed by a close association with the Protestant fraternal organisations such as the Orange Order. Northern Ireland was created in for unionists who did not want to be part of a self-ruled Ireland, but contained a substantial minority of Catholic nationalists.
Additionally, in local government, only rate payers, who were more often Protestants than Catholics, had a vote. Catholics also complained of discrimination in employment and the allocation of social housing, and also protested that their community was the main target of the Special Powers Act which allowed for detention without trial.
The unionists buttressed their political power with systematic discrimination against Catholics.
The Irish War of Independence – A Brief Overview | The Irish Story
There was also a lack of official recognition of Irish nationality in Northern Ireland. The Irish language and Irish history were not taught in state schools. However most nationalists in the North traditionally voted for the moderate Nationalist Party. There was an ineffective, mostly southern-based IRA guerrilla campaign against Northern Ireland from tobut with little nationalist support within the North and faced with internment on both sides of the border, it achieved little.
Their aim was to end the discrimination against Catholics within Northern Ireland. This led to increasingly bitter rioting between the Catholic population, especially in Derry, and the RUC. The unrest culminated in a series of severe riots across Northern Ireland in Augustin which 8 people were killed, hundreds of homes destroyed and 1, people displaced. In Belfast, the rioting developed into street fighting between Catholics and Protestants during which an entire Catholic street — Bombay Street — was burned out.
The British Army was deployed to restore order and was initially welcomed by Catholics. British soldiers look on at burned out houses in Belfast in the August The riots marked a watershed.
The IRA split into two factions, with the more militant, the Provisionals, claiming the existing organisation had failed to defend Catholics during the rioting. They were determined to launch a new armed campaign against Northern Ireland. The other faction, known as the Officials favoured building a left wing political party and fostering unity among the Catholic and Protestant working class before attempting to achieve a united Ireland.
However it was the Provisionals who would go on to dominate. British troops were initially welcomed by Catholics as their protectors but were rapidly drawn into a counter-insurgency campaign against Republican paramilitaries.
In the initial sweep no loyalists at all were detained.
The Irish War of Independence – A Brief Overview
Even those opposed to violence, such as the SDLP, walked out of the Stormont Parliament and led their supporters in a rent and rates strike. As a result, many republicans would depict the armed campaign of the following 25 years and defensive and retaliatory. A republican mural depicts the Falls Curfew. Courtesy of the Extramural Activities website.
Unlike previous IRA campaigns internment was not introduced in the Republic of Ireland, leading unionists to allege that the southern state sympathised with republican paramilitaries. The London government tried to defuse nationalist militancy with a series of reforms of Northern Ireland. The B Specials auxiliary police in theory but in practice a unionist militia were disbanded, electoral boundaries were withdrawn to reflect Catholic numbers and housing and employment executives were set up to deal with discrimination.
Republicans and state forces were not the only source of violence. Loyalist groups also proliferated in the early s with many Protestant neighbourhoods setting up paramilitary and vigilante groups. By both of these groups and others were killing significant numbers of Catholic civilians.
Despite this, far fewer loyalist than republican militants were imprisoned.
This massacre gave massive impetus to militant republicans. In addition to Bloody Sunday, its treatment of the nationalist population was often very violent — killing people, many of them civilians, from to There were other incidents of large scale shooting of civilians such as the Ballymurphy shootings 11 dead in and the Springhill shootings 5 deaths in It has recently emerged also that an undercover unit, the MRF, was carrying out assassinations and random shootings in Catholic areas and was responsible for at least 10 deaths, so some deaths attributed to paramilitary violence may actually have been undercover soldiers.
The Provisionals believed they were on the verge of victory by the summer ofor at any rate British withdrawal, when the British government opened direct talks with the IRA leadership. In response the IRA called a brief ceasefire. However no political agreement was reached — the IRA proposed no terms other than a united Ireland — and, after a standoff with the British Army and loyalists in the Lenadoon area of Belfast flared up into violence, the ceasefire was called off.
IRA members openly carrying weapons in Derry in Tradition maintains that in A.
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Patrick arrived on the island and, in the years that followed, worked to convert the Irish to Christianity. St Patrick's Confession, in Latin, written by him is the earliest Irish historical document. It gives some information about the Saint. Palladius seems to have worked purely as Bishop to Irish Christians in the Leinster and Meath kingdoms, while Patrick — who may have arrived as late as — worked first and foremost as a missionary to the pagan Irish, in the more remote kingdoms in Ulster and Connacht.
A page from the Book of Kells that opens the Gospel of John Patrick is traditionally credited with preserving and codifying Irish laws and changing only those that conflicted with Christian practices.
He is credited with introducing the Roman alphabetwhich enabled Irish monks to preserve parts of the extensive oral literature. The historicity of these claims remains the subject of debate and there is no direct evidence linking Patrick with any of these accomplishments.
The myth of Patrick, as scholars refer to it, was developed in the centuries after his death.
Missionaries from Ireland to England and Continental Europe spread news of the flowering of learning, and scholars from other nations came to Irish monasteries. The excellence and isolation of these monasteries helped preserve Latin learning during the Early Middle Ages. The period of Insular artmainly in the fields of illuminated manuscriptsmetalworking, and sculpture flourished and produced such treasures as the Book of Kellsthe Ardagh Chaliceand the many carved stone crosses that dot the island.
Insular style was to be a crucial ingredient in the formation of the Romanesque and Gothic styles throughout Western Europe. Sites dating to this period include clochansringforts and promontory forts. Francis John Byrne describes the effect of the epidemics which occurred during this era: The plagues of the s and the s had a traumatic effect on Irish society.
The golden age of the saints was over, together with the generation of kings who could fire a saga -writer's imagination. The literary tradition looks back to the reign of the sons of Aed Slaine Diarmait and Blathmac, who died in as to the end of an era.
Antiquaries, brehonsgenealogists and hagiographersfelt the need to collect ancient traditions before they were totally forgotten. Many were in fact swallowed by oblivion; when we examine the writing of Tirechan we encounter obscure references to tribes which are quite unknown to the later genealogical tradition. The laws describe a Early medieval and Viking era — [ edit ] Main article: Early Viking raids were generally fast-paced and small in scale. More were detained under legislation banning public parades.
In DecemberSinn Fein decisively won the Irish vote in the General Election taking 73 seats out being a majority everywhere except Ulster and declared an Irish Republic. This is commonly presented as the opening shots of the war but there had been deaths in and only 17 more people were killed in Alongside the limited armed campaign there was significant passive resistance including hunger strikes by prisoners many of whom were released in March and a boycott by railway workers on carrying British troops.
Violence intensified in early Much of the Sinn Fein political leadership had been arrested.
Eamon de Valera, the President of the Republic, had gone to America to raise funds. The RIC withdrew from its smaller stations into fortified barracks in towns and the abandoned posts were systematically burnt by the IRA around the country on the night of Easter Sunday By the summer ofmany RIC men were resigning their commissions and in many localities the IRA were in the ascendant.
At the same time, in the summer ofSinn Fein won local government elections across most of Ireland and took over functions of government from the state such as tax collection and law enforcement. To put down this insurgency, the British government under Lloyd George proposed autonomous governments in Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland and also deployed new corps of paramilitary police from Britain, the Black and Tans and Auxiliary Division, made up largely of war veterans from the First World War.
Lloyd George also passed the Restoration of Order in Ireland Act, giving special powers to the police and military. Escalation British troops search suspects in Dublin, This triggered a grave escalation of the conflict as the new forces carried out reprisals on the civilian population for IRA attacks — in the summer of burning extensive parts of the towns of Balbriggan and Tuam for example.
Up to people were killed and hundreds of Catholic homes burnt out. Another 7, Catholics were expelled from their jobs in the Belfast shipyards. The autumn and winter of saw a new ruthlessness on both sides. On November 21, IRA units in Dublin launched a mass assassination attack on British Intelligence officers, killing 14 men, of whom at least 8 were Intelligence Officers. A week later a patrol of 17 Auxiliaries was wiped out in an IRA ambush at Kilmichael in Cork and shortly after that much of Cork city centre was destroyed in a fire set by Crown forces.
By the end of some people had been killed.