Trait theory (video) | Behavior | Khan Academy
Allport's Psychology of the Individual Theory Trait and Factor Theory. Please explain how dispositional theories influence interpersonal relationships and. Dispositional and biological theories of personality expand on the basic personality, they may have an effect on interpersonal relationships. Dispositional theories influence interpersonal relationships and govern how people behave and react in situations. When people are raised in.
Darwin faced his theory off four ideologies: Generational individuals reproduce in increasing numbers that can survive evolving environments Donovan, Compensation for evolving environments gives credit to heritable variations in genetics Donovan, Individuals with genetically evolved heritable traits adapt to changing environments easier Bridgeford, New species of the same ancestry of a pre-existing species evolve from species that can no longer breed successfully with the same species Bridgeford, As of late, the evolutionary perspective has been used in studies trying to prove behavior is a genetic adaptation received from parents and ancestors.
He evolutionary perspective provides an explanation of the diversity of species contained within the world and why so many variations of those species exist Donovan, Biopsychology claims that humans are biological creatures that evolve from genetics, cause us to eat for survival, and behave because of the neuronal firings that throughout our brain Feist, These theories, just like dispositional theories seek to identify consistencies in individual differences.
However, biological theories tend to delve into the biological aspects of personality such as genetics and evolutionary origins Feist, Biopsychologists claim that personality develops through genetics derived from evolutionary history and impacted by hormones and neurotransmitters Feist, Biological psychology created a bridge between psychology and biology as it seeks to explain how the brain contributes to behavior Feist, The tamping iron tore through only the frontal lobes of the brain.
Additionally, the records of severe behavior and personality changes post-accident led researchers to make the assumptions of localization McLeod, Many traits create a pre-disposition to certain behavior in individuals meaning traits should remain consistent across situations over time but vary among individuals McLeod, Additionally, Cattell made the distinction between easily identifiable surface traits and source traits which are more definitive of personality, but harder to recognize McLeod, Allport believed that personality is determined biologically at birth and shaped by the environment McLeod, He also believed behavioral influences are innate motivational processes and internal cognition such as temperament, attitude, and skills McLeod, Explanations of individual differences extended beyond the environment of the person and included evolutionary support Feist, Biological research opened doors for future studies on personality.
However, biological psychology emphasizes the genetic aspect of personality fragmenting the theories which leave unexplained holes Feist, The fact that these theories focus on genetics and evolution of culture leaves little availability of future adaptations of personality Feist, The fragmented ideas allow for further research in the future to fill the gaps.
Incentive theory of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation infers behavior is primarily motivated by incentives of extrinsic factors Ryan, A motive is the triggering force of behavior that lays dormant within an individual until the individual establishes a genuine desire to react to the desire Ryan, Motives are the pushing and pulling forces that lead a person to think, perceive, and display certain behaviors as an effort to obtain personal satisfaction Ryan, Obtaining personal satisfaction means achieving personal desires and needs, which vary from person to person, allowing for individual motives to vary widely as well Ryan, Motivation consists of internal and external factors that keep an individual interested and committed to obtaining a goal Ryan, Motivation begins with the development of goal and ends with feelings of accomplishments achieved through the use of ideas, energy, determination, and action, Ryan, I think this is one of the most critical theories to understanding human behavior.
Individual behavior does not just happen, as Freud claimed, there is an underlying cause of all behavior, whether known or unknown. Additionally, I believe all behavior comes at a cost. That cost could be a material gain or the internal feeling of gratification, but some gain.
Learning the causes of behavior allows for the understanding of how and why behavior occurs. This theory, I believe, could be particularly helpful when helping those suffering addiction or phobia as a way of recognizing ways to deter or promote unwanted behavior. I think particularly, understanding what causes negative behavior, to the abuse of substances enlightens the individual and therapist to potential triggers of the individuals abusive nature.
Albert Banduras social learning theory takes the stance of conditioning theory but adds that behavior is learned through observation in the environment and that processes of mediation occur between stimuli and responses McLeod, From the Bobo doll experiment, we learned that children will behave in one manner, however if they observe a different behavior, they will react the same way they observed even if the behavior is abnormal for the child McLeod, To put social learning theory into a different perspective, I think that observing addictive behavior can lead to the development of addiction in an individual.
Along the lines of conditioning I believe it works this way: An individual observes an individual in their immediate environment consistently partake in reckless, or addictive behavior.
The individual becomes accustomed to the behavior as being socially acceptable and appears to be the norm. When a behavior is perceived as a socially accepted norm, one tends to adopt the behavior to fit in with the environment surrounding them. Both theories intrigue my mind as I have seen addiction struggles throughout my life. As parents, we may not always realize the things are children are learning from us.
Something as subtle as coming home after a stressful day at the office and having a glass of wine teaches a child that drinking wine is a good way to cope with stress. I believe the theory works for all aspects of life. At work, we are expected to lead by example, therefore, if we set a positive image, we receive positivity from others.
Tolman believed individuals ac ton on holistic belief, attitudes, changing conditions, and are goal oriented, but disregarded that humans act on incentive. This theory tells me that humans have innate behave and act on thought with the purest of intentions.
I do not agree with this theory, as I believe all humans have some type of incentive motivation that causes behavior. He believed that behavior was a cognitive coping mechanism similar to Freuds theory of repressed memories. However, I tend to angle more with Freud in the effect that I believe we behave according to past experience which may hinder development, in the event that we do not cope with experience, rather repress the distasteful memories we want to forget.
Dispositional Theory and Allport's Theory
Over the years, psychology has proven to be a field of continual evolution. I believe understanding motivation can give incite to all aspects of life. Understanding behavior or lack of behavior holds the potential to alter negative behavior before it starts.
Today, drugs and crime run the streets as if it has always been an acceptable norm. I believe those who do wrong should be punished for their behavior, however, I think that if the punishment included ways to enlighten the individual on portraying positive behavior and the effects of positive behavior on self and others he or she may be more inclined to develop the necessary motivation to undergo behavior modification.
We do it everyday. It basically defines personality in terms of identifiable patterns of behavior. So that is a key word. They are patterns of behavior.Hildegard Peplau's Interpersonal Relationship Theory
And I'll explain that in a little bit, into a little bit more depth. So it describes traits instead of explaining them as in many other personality theories. So this theory uses description versus explanation, versus other theories of personality tend to use explanation to describe patterns of behavior. So what exactly is a trait? Now, if someone asked you to describe your best friend, what kind of things would you say?
Dispositional theories | Psychology Student
Maybe that your best friend was funny, caring, loyal, even-tempered? Well, all of these words that I just called off represent traits. A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic. So that is another defining word. It is a stable characteristic. And what do I mean by stable? So it's a stable characteristic that causes individuals to consistently behave in certain ways.
So it has to be consistent. I guess that's synonymous with stable. So the combination and interaction of various traits forms a personality. And that's what's unique to each individual. No two people have the exact same personality.
We can even see that within our families. Even though we share many genes, we all have different personalities because we all possess these different traits.
Dispositional Theory and Allport's Theory
Well, let's get into what different theorists of the trait theory have to say in trying to describe traits. So, a little aside over here, I found these personality tests to be so fascinating, like the Myers-Briggs personality type test. I don't know if you've taken it before. But basically, it gives you a set of four letters that categorizes you into one of 16 personality types.
And then within each one of those personality types, there's a set of traits and behaviors that you tend to dominate in your everyday life.
So anyways, if you haven't checked those types of personality tests out, I highly recommend it. I know a lot of companies use them for employment. And it's just a fun way to get to know yourself and your tendencies a little better. So individual trait theories differ in terms of whether or not they believe that all individuals possess the same traits. And I'll get into that in a little bit. And you'll see why I say that. So let's go through the first theorist.
His name was Gordon Allport. So what Allport said is that all of us have different traits. He didn't believe that all individuals have the same traits. He said that they could differ amongst individuals.
These theories, just like dispositional theories seek to identify consistencies in individual differences.
However, biological theories tend to delve into the biological aspects of personality such as genetics and evolutionary origins Feist, Biological psychologists claim that personality is developed through genetics derived from evolutionary history and is impacted by hormones and neurotransmitters Feist, Biological psychology created a bridge between psychology and biology as it seeks to explain how the brain contributes to behavior Feist, Explanations of individual differences extended beyond the environment of the individual and included evolutionary support Feist, Biological research opened doors for future studies on personality.
However, biological psychology emphasizes the genetic aspect of personality fragmenting the theories which leaves unexplained holes Feist, The fact that these theories focus on genetics and evolution of culture leaves little availability of future adaptations of personality Feist, The fragmented ideals allow for further research in the future to fill the gaps.
Similarities and differences Both, dispositional and biological psychologists aim to find consistencies in behavior and individual differences Feist, However, biological psychology mandates personality evolves over time through generations deeming that there are genetic inconsistencies in personality from individual to individual Feist, Dispositional theorists claim that personality is developed through traits called dispositions.
The common traits are characteristics that are held by a certain group of people such as culture, but within a common trait is a disposition unique to one individual Feist, Biological psychologists mandate the primary structure of personality is built from genetic structures that evolve and adapt over time whereas dispositional psychologists maintain traits are consistent structural bases of personality Feist, Both theory types believe that personality is built from an internal mental structure that regulates consistencies and dispositions within a person.