Atman & Brahman
Moksha also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Moksha is also a concept that means liberation from rebirth or saṃsāra. .. Buddhism rejects the idea of Brahman, and the metaphysical ideas about soul (atman) are also rejected by Buddhism, while those ideas are essential. Atman and brahman are central concepts in the Hindu understanding of human being and their relationship to ultimate reality. What is the difference between the Brahman and Atman referred to in the There are Hindu Darsanas that do not accept that the Atman is the same as Brahman An easy way to understand the relationship between Atman and consciousness is to make .. Is Moksha the experience of Brahman or knowledge of Brahman?.
Teleology deals with the apparent purpose, principle or goal of something. In the first chapter of the Shvetashvatara Upanishadthese questions are dealt with. What is the cause of Brahman? Why were we born?
By what do we live? On what are we established? Governed by whom, O you who know Brahman, do we live in pleasure and in pain, each in our respective situation? One can only find out its true purpose when one becomes the Brahman as the 'Brahman' is all the knowledge one can know itself.
Hence, complete answers for anything in life can only be determined or obtained when the Brahman is realized as the Brahman is all the complete knowledge itself. This is said in the Aitareya Upanishad 3. Knowledge is the eye of all that, and on knowledge it is founded.
Knowledge is the eye of the world, and knowledge, the foundation. This is because the person has the ability and knowledge to discriminate between the unchanging Atman and Brahman and the ever-changing Prakrit and so the person is not attached to the transient.
Hence, the person is only content with the self and not his body or anything other than the self. In Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 3. Therefore, the apparent purpose of Brahman is in discussion in the Upanishads but the Brahman itself is the only self-contained purpose and true goal according to the Upanishadsso posing the question is redundant.
Atman | Hindu philosophy | blogmaths.info
The Upanishads consider the Brahman the only actual worthwhile goal in life and ultimately one should aim to become it as it is the means and an end in and of itself to ultimate knowledge, immortality, etc.
The atman refers to the real self beyond ego or false self. It is often referred to as 'spirit' or 'soul' and indicates our true self or essence which underlies our existence. There are many interesting perspectives on the self in Hinduism ranging from the self as eternal servant of God to the self as being identified with God.
The understanding of the self as eternal supports the idea of reincarnation in that the same eternal being can inhabit temporary bodies. The idea of atman entails the idea of the self as a spiritual rather than material being and thus there is a strong dimension of Hinduism which emphasises detachment from the material world and promotes practices such as asceticism. Thus it could be said that in this world, a spiritual being, the atman, has a human experience rather than a human being having a spiritual experience.
Dharma Dharma Dharma is an important term in Indian religions. In Hinduism it means 'duty', 'virtue', 'morality', even 'religion' and it refers to the power which upholds the universe and society.
Hindus generally believe that dharma was revealed in the Vedas although a more common word there for 'universal law' or 'righteousness' is rita. Dharma is the power that maintains society, it makes the grass grow, the sun shine, and makes us moral people or rather gives humans the opportunity to act virtuously.
But acting virtuously does not mean precisely the same for everyone; different people have different obligations and duties according to their age, gender, and social position. Dharma is universal but it is also particular and operates within concrete circumstances.
Each person therefore has their own dharma known as sva-dharma. What is correct for a woman might not be for a man or what is correct for an adult might not be for a child. The importance of sva-dharma is illustrated well by the Bhagavad Gita.
This text, set before the great battle of the Mahabharata, depicts the hero Arjuna riding in his chariot driven by his charioteer Krishna between the great armies. The warrior Arjuna questions Krishna about why he should fight in the battle. Surely, he asks, killing one's relatives and teachers is wrong and so he refuses to fight. Krishna assures him that this particular battle is righteous and he must fight as his duty or dharma as a warrior.
Arjuna's sva-dharma was to fight in the battle because he was a warrior, but he must fight with detachment from the results of his actions and within the rules of the warriors' dharma.
Indeed, not to act according to one's own dharma is wrong and called adharma. Correct action in accordance with dharma is also understood as service to humanity and to God. The idea of what has become known as sanatana dharma can be traced back to the puranas - texts of antiquity.
Those who adhere to this idea of one's eternal dharma or constitution, claim that it transcends other mundane dharmas - that it is the para dharma, the ultimate dharma of the self. It is often associated with bhakti movements, who link an attitude of eternal service to a personal deity. Now exhibited in the Horniman Museum, London.
This is called varnashrama-dharma. In Hindu history the highest class, the Brahmins, adhered to this doctrine. The class system is a model or ideal of social order that first occurs in the oldest Hindu text, the Rig Veda and the present-day caste jati system may be rooted in this.
The four classes are: Brahmans or Brahmins - the intellectuals and the priestly class who perform religious rituals Kshatriya nobles or warriors - who traditionally had power Vaishyas commoners or merchants - ordinary people who produce, farm, trade and earn a living Shudras workers - who traditionally served the higher classes, including labourers, artists, musicians, and clerks People in the top three classes are known as 'twice born' because they have been born from the womb and secondly through initiation in which boys receive a sacred thread as a symbol of their high status.
Although usually considered an initiation for males it must be noted that there are examples of exceptions to this rule, where females receive this initiation.
The twice born traditionally could go through four stages of life or ashramas. The ashrama system is as follows: Brahmacarya - 'celibate student' stage in which males learned the Veda grihastha - 'householder' in which the twice born male can experience the human purposes purushartha of responsibility, wealth, and sexual pleasure Vanaprastha - 'hermit' or 'wilderness dweller' in which the twice born male retires from life in the world to take up pilgrimage and religious observances along with his wife Samnyasa - 'renunciation' in which the twice born gives up the world, takes on a saffron robe or, in some sects, goes naked, with a bowl and a staff to seek moksha liberation or develop devotion Correct action in accordance with dharma is also understood as service to humanity and to God.
The idea of what has become known as sanatana dharma can be traced back to the puranas. It is often associated with bhakti movements, who propose that we are all eternal servants of a personal Deity, thus advocating each act, word, and deed to be acts of devotion.
It refers to the law that every action has an equal reaction either immediately or at some point in the future. Good or virtuous actions, actions in harmony with dharma, will have good reactions or responses and bad actions, actions against dharma, will have the opposite effect. In Hinduism karma operates not only in this lifetime but across lifetimes: Hindus believe that human beings can create good or bad consequences for their actions and might reap the rewards of action in this life, in a future human rebirth or reap the rewards of action in a heavenly or hell realm in which the self is reborn for a period of time.
This process of reincarnation is called samsara, a continuous cycle in which the soul is reborn over and over again according to the law of action and reaction.
Hinduism: core ideas of Brahman, Atman, Samsara and Moksha. (video) | Khan Academy
At death many Hindus believe the soul is carried by a subtle body into a new physical body which can be a human or non-human form an animal or divine being.
The goal of liberation moksha is to make us free from this cycle of action and reaction, and from rebirth. Purushartha Purushartha Hinduism developed a doctrine that life has different goals according to a person's stage of life and position. These goals became codified in the 'goals of a person' or 'human goals', the purusharthas, especially in sacred texts about dharma called 'dharma shastras' of which the 'Laws of Manu' is the most famous.
In these texts three goals of life are expressed, namely virtuous living or dharma, profit or worldly success, and pleasure, especially sexual pleasure as a married householder and more broadly aesthetic pleasure. A fourth goal of liberation moksha was added at a later date. The purusharthas express an understanding of human nature, that people have different desires and purposes which are all legitimate in their context.