Lehigh River - Wikipedia
City where the Lehigh and Delaware rivers meet is a crossword puzzle clue. City where the Lehigh and Delaware rivers meet -- Find potential answers to this crossword clue at blogmaths.info A public hearing of the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) . to the Lehigh River at River Mile - (Delaware River - Lehigh.
Although the plant is not open to the public, a drive along 3rd Street reveals the massive scale of this most powerful of industries. Following Penn's innovative concepts of town planning, as exemplified in Philadelphia, Thomas laid out the town in a grid around a "great square. Buildings and homes built by merchants near the great Square are part of the Easton Historic District. During the 19th century the city's strategic location at the junction of the Delaware and Lehigh Rivers, the canals, and five major railroads contributed to it becoming one of the nation's earliest industrial centers.
The tremendous industrial growth that followed the Civil War increased the demand for laborers. Coal and iron companies initially recruited German, Irish, and Welsh workers. As more and more labor was needed, Slavs, Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Czechs, and many others were bought over. Quarrying and stone dressing attracted Italian masons. Wives and children of the workers were employed in silk millssituated to take advantage of inexpensive labor.
Distinctive ethnic neighborhoods and mining company towns emerged. The poor working conditions of these immigrants eventually created a workforce sympathetic to representation by labor unions. The experience of this labor force differed sharply from those able to profit greatly from this industrial growth.
The town of Jim Thorpe reflects the lives of some of the regions more affluent residents. Tucked in the narrow valley of the Mauch Chunk Creek, exuberantly designed 19th-century buildings reflect the wealth and activity of the town.
Jim Thorpe was the boom town of the canal era, the early headquarters of the powerful Lehigh and Navigation Company, and a transfer point between the mountain railroads and the canal. Hauled over the mountain on a gravity railroad, anthracite coal was loaded into canal boats to be transported downstream to markets in Philadelphia. First operated inthe gravity railroad was a marvel and generated the first tourist boom for this tiny mountain town, by carrying thousands of tourists attracted to the prospects of mountain scenery and cool air.
The preserved Asa Packer Mansiona National Historic Landmark, illustrates the sudden wealth which could be attained here. Asa Packer came to Jim Thorpe as an apprentice boatbuilder. He died 57 years later as a millionaire, after founding boatyards, construction and mining companies, the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and Lehigh University. Asa Packer built a second mansion for his son, and the Harry Packer Mansion is now used as an inn. From the renovated train station, occasional steam railroad excursions take visitors up the scenic Lehigh Valley Gorge.
Canal History Transportation routes built for commerce developed slowly in eastern Pennsylvania, and it was not until after the American Revolution that some thought was given to open the upper river regions to transportation canals.
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Routes to the interior promised opportunity but bad roads limited development. Areas easily accessible by water, such as lower Bucks County, were settled first, and had a strong relationship to Philadelphia. Remote farming settlements far from navigable waters in upper Bucks and the Lehigh Valley remained isolated and developed small self-sufficient economies.
Many of the settlers struggled to take advantage of local natural resources such as lime, iron, timber and slate, but lack of transportation restricted their use.
Settlers did not move into the remote and difficult terrain north of the Blue Mountain until after the better agriculture lands of the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont had been settled. During this time the young city of Philadelphia was growing into a powerful political and economic center, and until was the largest city in North America.
Transport of goods to markets there was critical to the development of the region's economy. Navigation was possible on the Delaware River as far north as Morrisville.
Here, at the Falls of the Delaware, the Coastal Plain rises to the Piedmont, and rocks and river rapids form barriers to ships. Such barriers did not stop shipping completely: The Durham boats were laboriously poled back upstream, although their limited size and the intensive labor required made this form of transportation expensive.
The economic impetus for the development of reliable inexpensive transportation on a large scale occurred early in the 19th century. Two ambitious Philadelphia entrepreneurs, Josiah White and Erskine Hazard, secured rights to thousands of acres of these anthracite coal lands.
After they demonstrated the marketability of anthracite as a efficient fuel, they began to modify the Lehigh River for navigation. Built in stages from tothe canals opened the region to exploitation. The canals were largely hand-dug by local farmers and Irish immigrants using picks, shovels, and wheelbarrows. The navigation system of canal and slackwater consisted of dams and locks of unprecedented size. The final connection to Wilkes-Barre was made by rail, and it included the remarkable set of three inclined planes near Ashley.
Today, the old boat basin and tidal locks are gone, but the canal is intact in Bristol and flows past the 19th-century Grundy Mill. Along the restored river front is the Colonial and Federal era core of the town, as well as Victorian mansions built during the industrial heyday, among them the Senator Joseph Grundy Mansion.
The canals were most active during the s to the s.
Even at the Lehigh Navigation System's peak in the s, adjacent railroads began eroding the canals' business. When much of the mile upper grand section of the canal, from White Haven to Jim Thorpewas destroyed by a flood init was never rebuilt. Use of the mile lower canal slowly declined, and portions were in operation until It was America's last and longest-operated towpath canal.
The Delaware Canal ceased operation during the Great Depression and is today significant as the most intact, accessible, and watered towpath canal in the nation. One hundred and sixty years later, much of the stonework of the canal's retaining walls and locks is still visible and the canal is capable of being fully watered.
But Scranton did not begin where commerce carrying roads met. It had an odd start in a deep valley without benefit of populace or industry.
In a pioneer named Isaac Tripp moved up from the Wyoming Valley to the Lackawanna Valley, becoming the first European settler in the region. Tripp, family members, and others established farms and businesses such as grist mills and forges that serviced farmers needs. In the census recorded people spread around the area that would become Scranton. The census showed an increase to only 1, persons. Little was attracting new settlers. About this time, Judge Jesse Fell discovered that the local hard coal, anthracite, could be burned for domestic use.
Anthracite produces high heat and burns relatively cleanly. Once ignited with a wood fire, a good draft through a grate, and fed from above, an anthracite fire burned continuously. Mines were opened and coal shipped over the mountains via the Delaware and Hudson gravity railroad and canal system.
They thought they could capitalize on the hard coal and the local iron ore. After two years and much effort they finally made pig iron, in January The pig iron then needed transporting out of the valley to be processed into nails, tools, horseshoes, and anything made of iron. Transportation costs priced the pig bars above market levels. The iron ore was also inferior and did not produce high quality products. At least the local coal was of acceptable quality.
In a last effort, the Scrantons entered into a contract with the New York and Erie Railroad to manufacture rail. Both companies were desperate. The Erie needed to open lines across New York and the Scrantons needed economic survival. The Scrantons built a rolling mill, imported iron ore, experimented, and in the end they delivered the first mass-produced rail in North America.
They fulfilled the Erie contract and set the valley on the path to progress. The companies that would eventually become the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad began in Rails laid out of the valley carried the products of the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company to the outside world.
The railroads that carried iron and coal out brought in laborers and entrepreneurs. Soon, the backwoods agrarian character changed to an early industrial base. The Lackawanna Coal and Iron Company produced pig iron until when the company moved closer to iron fields and water transportation in Buffalo, New York. Coal mining and transportation of the coal surpassed iron production in economic importance. In the 19th century and well into the 20th, northeast Pennsylvania was known as "The Anthracite Capital of the World.
Scranton itself was built upon the twin pillars of iron and coal. Railroads, the third industry, were developed to move the iron and coal to market. Scranton and the surrounding area benefited from immigration patterns. Businessmen moving in from Connecticut and New England established banks and retail stores, and became managers in the coal companies and other industries.
The first bank opened in First generation European immigrants arrived from Wales, Ireland, and Germany. Many of these immigrants, especially the Welsh, were skilled miners and quickly occupied places within the mining industry. Even today, this area has the greatest number of Welsh descendants of any area in the United States. After the Civil War, Scranton emerged as the dominant town in northeast Pennsylvania, Lackawanna Avenue was the commercial center with railroad stations, mills, banks, markets, and retail shops lining both sides and more businesses along the cross streets.
Civic leaders formed the Board of Trade, a precursor to the Chamber of Commerce, to encourage new businesses and city oriented projects. Owners of New England textiles mills developed in similar mills here.
Pennsylvania city where the Delaware and Lehigh Rivers meet
The prevailing industries hired men and boys while the silk and garment mills would hire women and girls. The Sauquoit Silk Mill hired 2, workers, mainly female. As the Welsh moved into supervisory positions, they were replaced by other immigrants recently arrived from southern and eastern Europe.
Those in this second wave of immigration were escaping grinding poverty, usually did not speak English, were marginally educated, and had few employable skills. In more than one-third of thepeople living in Scranton were foreign born. Technological progress within the mining industry required more general laborers and fewer skilled miners.
Coal has been called the blessing and the curse of the area. Mining was the main wage-producing industry and labor was the greatest cost incurred in operating a mine. Before World War II, anthracite coal was replaced by cheaper, more easily obtainable, and cleaner burning fuels. Before the collapse of the market, the employees of the two primary industries in Scranton, coal mines and railroads, participated in several nationwide strikes over a year period and through a collective voice let the nation know of their plight regarding unsafe working conditions, long hours, and low pay.
Powderlyelected twice as mayor, was president of the Knights of Labor, an early union. The miners' plight reached a national audience with the Anthracite Strike.
Anyone with a bit of money could buy a mine and hire laborers, but most mines were owned by railroads in a vertical monopoly.
Pennsylvania city where the Delaware and Lehigh Rivers meet
At least half of the mine workers were immigrants whose loyalties were fragmented along ethnic and religious lines. John Mitchell, from Illinois, had the charisma and skill as president of the United Mine Workers of America to organize these diverse and quarreling groups as 80 percent of thehard coal miners participated in the Anthracite Strike.
Supporters reached President Theodore Roosevelt who then forced representatives of the mine operators to accept arbitration. Before his death in at the age of 49, Mitchell requested burial in Scranton because he had a good relationship with the people of the city. He is buried in Cathedral Cemetery and there is a statue in his honor on the county courthouse lawn.
Anthracite mining peaked in This was also about the time when the textile industry began its decline as natural fibers were replaced by synthetics. In about 30, men were employed in the regional coal industry and when this industry began to decline so did the economic base of the region. The year represents the city's economic apex. Even with the development of other businesses, the area remained dependent on the labor intensive industries demanding muscle and sweat.
Likewise, the census recorded the height of Scranton's population withpeople living within the city limits. Out-migration was documented in each subsequent census with the census showing about 70, residents. The "Electric City" is a nickname recognizing Scranton's claim for the operation of the first electric streetcar in the United States.
The first run was on the evening of November 30, when passengers boarded after a lecture by African explorer Henry M. Luke's Episcopal Church and rode to the Green Ridge section. Recently reelectrified, the "Electric City" sign atop the Board of Trade building dominates the north side of Courthouse Square.
The eight-story building was once the tallest structure in Scranton. The state legislature required a mine foreman to pass a knowledge test. An underground corridor, now blocked, connected the station interior with the tracks outside. Union Station, Bethlehem site plan - The station is currently used by Amtrak for commuter service to and from Philadelphia. It is located on Third Street in Bethlehem in an industrial area bordering the Bethlehem Steel complex, and is within two blocks of Lehigh University ; Bethlehem has plans for developing this area as a transportation services district.
Business resulting from adaptive use of Union Station for offices, a Amtrak ticket office, specialty shops, a market, and cafes could support the proposed district as well as nearby canal facilities ; Floor plan of Union Station, Bethlehem 20 [Illustration]: Site plan of Neuweiler Brewery ; The vacant brewery, surrounded by a residential and industrial neighborhood, could be reused as a cultural center containing museums and galleries, a library, shops, restaurants, and office spaces ; The brewery complex boasts fine architectural detail.
Pictured here is a copper, beer-bottle frieze on the bottling house canopy. Other embellishments include large arched windows in the vat rooms, a copper cupola with skylight and flagpole atop the vat rooms, the large Neuweiler insignia on the Front Street side of the brewery, and the tan brick smokestack with a corbelled brick top and Neuweiler name set in dark brick down the stack. The brewery contains 76, square feet of floor space.
The six floors are a complex mixture of space once used as vat rooms and storage areas. The storage rooms, by 52 feet, have 12 inches of insulation for refrigeration ; Elevation of Neuweiler Brewery.