Track and field - Wikipedia
May OUTDOOR TRACK AND FIELD NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS ( NAIA-TFCA) is an organization of collegiate track and field coaches at NAIA. NCAA DII Indoor Track & Field Rating Index – Preseason November 19, - Field Announced For NCAA DII Cross Country Championships. Competitions in track and field are called meets and are usually held outdoors, Academy at Sandhurst held the first organized track and field meet of modern times. In the first English championships were held by the newly formed.
Competitions in track and field are called meets and are usually held outdoors, with the running events taking place on a portion of or around a m The field events — those disciplines involving jumping and throwing — generally take place at the same time as the running events, on the area within the track's circumference, or nearby.
Meets are held indoors during the winter months on smaller ovals, which vary from 5 to 12 laps to the mile in size. Races of differing lengths from those held outdoors are often run, and several of the field events that require a large space are not held. Indoor tracks are generally made of wood and are often banked to offset the sharp turns of the smaller ovals. Separate but related sports are often considered to be part of the track and field family.
Cross-country is a fall and winter activity for distance runners, with races of 3. Road races may be of any length, up to and beyond km Long-distance walking events are usually held on road courses as well. The cross-country season is generally from September until early December in the United States, although in Europe meets are often held throughout the winter until the start of the outdoor track season.
Indoor meets are held in the winter months, December through March. Road races are held throughout the year, regardless of weather conditions. History Track and field is one of the oldest of sports.
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Athletic contests were often held in conjunction with religious festivals, as with the Olympic Games of ancient Greece. For 11 centuries, starting in B. During the Middle Ages, except for a short-lived revival in 12th-century England, organized track and field all but disappeared.
The true development of track and field as a modern sport started in England during the 19th century. English public school and university students gave the sport impetus through their interclass meets, or meetings as they are still called in Britain, and in the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst held the first organized track and field meet of modern times.
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Not until the s, however, did the sport flourish. In the first English championships were held by the newly formed Amateur Athletic Club, which opened the competition to all "gentlemen amateurs" specifically, athletes who received no financial compensation for their efforts.
This code has lasted to the present day and is the basis of the rules governing the sport. The Amateur Athletic Club gave way to the Amateur Athletic Association inwhich has conducted the annual national championships since that date.
Although meets were held on the North American continent as early astrack and field first gained popularity in the late s, after the formation of the New York Athletic Club in In the first modern Olympic Games were staged. Although initially of limited appeal, the Olympics captured the imagination of athletes and grew steadily, making track and field an international sport for the first time. The IAAF was charged with establishing standard rules for the sport, approving world records, and ensuring that the amateur code was adhered to; it continues to carry out these duties today.
The participation of women in track and field is a relatively recent development. In representatives from six countries formed an athletic federation for women, which merged with the IAAF in Participation by women has grown rapidly in many countries in recent years, particularly in the United States, where many schools have added women's track and field to their athletic programs.
Rules and Scoring All races are started by the firing of a gun by an official at the starting line. For races up to and including one lap of an outdoor track, the runners must stay for the entire distance within lanes marked on the track.
Track and Field
There may be six to eight lanes, with each lane usually measuring 1. The winner in each race is the runner whose torso first breaks the vertical plane of the finish line. Races are timed either by mechanical watches or by more sophisticated, electronic photo-timers that can measure finishes to the hundredth of a second.
Sometimes, owing to the number of contestants in a competition, qualifying rounds, or heats, are held to narrow the contestants down to the fastest runners. Athletes in the field events also have qualifying rounds. In the horizontal jumps and throws athletes are allowed three preliminary attempts if the field numbers more than eight participants. Then the best performers are allowed three more attempts.
In the vertical jumps the high jump — and pole vault — the participants are allowed to continue until they have three successive failures. If two or more contestants tie, the competitor with the fewest failures at the last height cleared is the winner; if still tied, the total number of failures is the deciding factor; if a tie remains, the total number of jumps is considered.
Scoring differs according to the meet. Many national competitions are scored on the basis of 10 points for first place, 8 for second, on down to 1 point for sixth. In international meets, the scoring is 5 for first place, 3 for second, 2 for third, and 1 for fourth.
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The team with the highest total wins. For road races, cross-country meets, and walking competitions, the winner is given 1 point, the second-place finisher 2 points, and so on; the finish positions are totaled, and the team with the lowest score is the winner. Track Events The sprints are all-out efforts over the entire distance run. Outdoors the sprints are — yd Indoor sprints are often as short as 50 yd Sprinters use a crouch start in which, after being commanded to get "on your marks" by the starter, the contestant kneels with one knee on the ground and both hands resting behind the starting line.
On the "get set" command, the sprinter raises the knee from the ground in anticipation of the gun. When it fires, the runner will accelerate as quickly as possible from the starting line. To facilitate a quick start by giving the runner something to push off against, devices known as starting blocks are used. In the longer sprints — m and yd, m and yd — the races are run in assigned lanes for the entire circumference of the track. To ensure fairness for all participants, the start is staggered so that runners farther out from the inside lane start farther ahead of the contestants to their left, who have a smaller circumference to run around; as a result all runners travel the same distance.
The middle distance races range from to 2, m Such is the popularity of the mile that it is the only event of English measure still recognized by the IAAF for record purposes. While the yd Bib numbers Shoes and spikes Uniforms Note: In accordance with National Team policies, athletes are not permitted to wear Team Canada uniforms during the Championships. Bags will be inspected to ensure that they do not contain any of the prohibited items listed below.
The only exceptions are for high jump and javelin, where the maximum length is 9mm. Protests and appeals Protests concerning the result or conduct of an event must be made within 30 minutes of the official posting of the results at the TIC in accordance with the procedures listed below. A notice of protest must be presented at the TIC within 30 minutes of the time of the posted results. The Competition Director, or designate, will explain the process to the athlete, coach or interested person and provide a protest form.
If the referee agrees with the protest the results sheet will be adjusted and results reposted. This provides a minute opportunity for other athletes or interested persons to appeal this decision from the time of posting of the revised result. Upon completion of a protest form, the Competition Director, or designate, will make a copy of the completed protest form and will take one copy to the Jury who will then adjudicate upon the issue by reviewing any and all available relevant information.
The Jury will then prepare their response, including all relevant information, on the protest form and the Competition Director, or designate, will advise both the protest group and Meet Secretary or Results Manager of the results of the protest.
The Jury of Appeal will remain at the competition site for at least 30 minutes after completion of the final event or until the Technical Director or designate advises them that no further protests have been received and they may leave. Medical services A medical team will provide the necessary healthcare for the participants and spectators at the Canadian Championships. The organizing committee is responsible for providing medical services and facilities for the Championships.