Lesson 4: The Nile River - An Overview
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is the longest river in the The river Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile . The White The two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. Where the White Nile and the Blue Nile Meet. C& speaks to Ala Kheir of the Sudanese Photographers Group, a collective made up of a younger. In Sudan's bustling capital, Khartoum, which sits at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles, traders sell sim cards on the busy streets while.
While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the completion of the Aswan High Dam ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil, fundamentally changing farming practices.
The Nile supports much of the population living along its banks, enabling Egyptians to live in otherwise inhospitable regions of the Sahara. The rivers's flow is disturbed at several points by the Cataracts of the Nilewhich are sections of faster-flowing water with many small islands, shallow water, and rocks, which form an obstacle to navigation by boats.
The Sudd wetlands in Sudan also forms a formidable navigation obstacle and impede water flow, to the extent that Sudan had once attempted to canalize the Jonglei Canal to bypass the swamps. The first cataract, the closest to the mouth of the river, is at Aswan, north of the Aswan Dam.
This part of the river is a regular tourist route, with cruise ships and traditional wooden sailing boats known as feluccas. Many cruise ships ply the route between Luxor and Aswan, stopping at Edfu and Kom Ombo along the way. Security concerns have limited cruising on the northernmost portion for many years.
A computer simulation study to plan the economic development of the Nile was directed by H.
Allan, for the Ministry of Hydro-power of the Republic of the Sudan, during —    Morrice was their Hydrological Adviser, and Allan his predecessor. Barnett directed the software development and computer operations.
The calculations were enabled by accurate monthly inflow data collected for 50 years. The underlying principle was the use of over-year storage, to conserve water from rainy years for use in dry years. Irrigation, navigation and other needs were considered. Each computer run postulated a set of reservoirs and operating equations for the release of water as a function of the month and the levels upstream.
The behavior that would have resulted given the inflow data was modeled. Over models were run. Recommendations were made to the Sudanese authorities.
The calculations were run on an IBM computer. Simulation studies to design water resources are discussed further in the article on hydrology transport modelsthat have been used since the s to analyze water quality. Despite the development of many reservoirs, drought during the s led to widespread starvation in Ethiopia and Sudan, but Egypt was nourished by water impounded in Lake Nasser. Drought has proven to be a major cause of fatality in the Nile river basin.
Where two Niles meet: a view of life in Sudan – in pictures | Global development | The Guardian
According to a report by the Strategic Foresight Group around million people have been affected by droughts in the last century with half a million lives lost. Countries including Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya have complained about Egyptian domination of its water resources. The Nile Basin Initiative promotes a peaceful cooperation among those states.
It is very difficult to have all these countries agree with each other given the self-interest of each country and their political, strategic, and social differences.
On 14 May at EntebbeEthiopiaRwandaTanzania and Uganda signed a new agreement on sharing the Nile water even though this agreement raised strong opposition from Egypt and Sudan. Ideally, such international agreements should promote equitable and efficient usage of the Nile basin's water resources.
Without a better understanding about the availability of the future water resources of the Nile, it is possible that conflicts could arise between these countries relying on the Nile for their water supply, economic and social developments.
The expedition began at the White Nile's beginning at Lake Victoria in Ugandaon 17 January and arrived safely at the Mediterranean in Rosettafour and a half months later.
Where two Niles meet: a view of life in Sudan – in pictures
In Aprilthe Ascend the Nile Expedition including two explorers from Britain and one from New Zealand ascended the river from its mouth at Rosetta to one of its sources in Rwanda's Nyungwe Forest.
During the Expedition they were ambushed by the LRA Lord's Resistance Army led by the notorious Joseph Konyhowever post-attack six months later they returned to complete the expedition.
They measured the length of the river with the help of GPS and claimed to have found the furthest source. Due to the unscientific approach of their expedition, their reluctance to release the GPS data, and not having measured the other contender for the true source of the Nile in Burundi, controversy has ensued.
He was part of the first generation of artists. All those are artists that were very successful in the eighties in Sudan. Most of them left Sudan and never returned, but some of them keep coming and going. What kind of activities do you do in your teaching? We teach as a collective. For myself, I try to join as many workshops as I can outside Sudan in order to gain something new and increase my knowledge for my own teaching.
In Sudan, we offer free workshops, about four each year. And if we get some good funding, we invite some leading seasoned photographers and other experts who are experienced to help us. Other than that, the workshops are usually led by older more experienced photographers who teach younger photographers.
This is a project by the Goethe-Insititut that brings together photography education platforms on the continent as a network where we exchange ideas and teaching methodologies and also learn as trainers. So this can be a means to help each other in providing a better form of art education. The best thing is that we have the Market Photo Workshop as a longstanding, leading model. I believe their experiences are very useful to us.
How do you attract your students? The Internet helped us a lot to promote our group and also to find funding. We also have our own website now. Ala Kheir, Mugran Foto Week You also initiated an art festival. Can you tell us more about it?
It is called the Mugran Foto Week.
We have always wanted to engage the public with what we are doing in our workshops and Lilli Kobler, the then-director of the Goethe Institut in Khartoum, who we were also collaborating with, supported the idea of the festival. So that was the start. In Septemberwe had the second edition of Mugran Foto Week.
It was very intersting to see how the public react to photos of their city. The Blue Nile carries roughly twice the water of the White Nile, but its flow is concentrated in the months between July and November. Some km north of Khartoum the Nile locally called the Nubian Nile is joined by its final major tributary, the Atbara, which drains the northern Ethiopian highlands. The Atbara is a strong but seasonal input to the Nubian Nile: The monsoonal rains in the Ethiopian highlands thus drive seasonal flooding along the length of the Nile from below Khartoum to its outlet in the Mediterranean Sea.
From the personal collection of Dr. What do YOU think? You may want to look at the photos throughout this lesson for inspiration! North of Khartoum the river passes through a series of six major cataracts through which it drops from to 90 meters above sea level en route to Aswan Egypta distance of km.